Column is a vertical structural member that carry loads mainly in compression. They transfer the loads from slab, beam to the foundation safely.
There are several types of columns which are used in different parts of structures.
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Types of Columns in Building Construction
Columns are categorized based on following conditions
- Types of reinforcement
- Slenderness ratio
- Load Position
- Construction material
1- Based on Types of Reinforcement
a- Tied Column
In this type of column, Longitudinal reinforcement are confined within closely spaced tie reinforcement. This type of column accounts 95% of columns used in building construction.
b- Spiral Reinforcement
In this type, longitudinal bars are confined within closely spaced and continuously wound spiral reinforcement. This type of reinforcement provides extra confinement to concrete and delays in column failure.
Based on Slenderness Ratio
a- Short Columns
If the ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension is less than 12, the column is called as the short column. A short column fails by crushing (pure compression failure).
b- Long Column
If the ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension exceeds 12, it is called as long column. A long column fails by bending or buckling.
Based on Load Position
a- Axially Loaded Column
These types of columns fails in pure compression at ultimate load. But this is very rare case as it is difficult to apply load exact at center of gravity of column.Interior column of multi-storey buildings with symmetrical loads from floor slabs from all sides is an example of this type of column.
b- Eccentric Load Column
In this type of column, the load acts either on X or Y axis (Uni-axial load column) or neither on any axis (Bi-axial loaded column). Edge column and corner column are best example of it.